First Women in STEM: A Tribute to International Women’s Day.

First Women in STEM: A Tribute to International Women’s Day. Here is a celebration of some of the brilliant women who changed the course of history for the better. Women of G+ , do you have stories of your own to share? What personal achievement are you proud of, whether in your family, community or profession?

Marie Curie: First woman to receive a Nobel Prize, once for Physics (1903) and then again for Chemistry (1911), she pioneered the study of radioactivity. She died of aplastic anemia brought on by lethal exposure to radiation. Despite her two Nobels, she was not elected to the French Academy of Sciences by two votes.

Mary Kies. Hats off to the First woman granted a US patent (1809) for a process to weave straw with silk or thread in hat making. This was a time when women could not legally own property independent of their husbands. Her patent is credited with boosting American industry at a time when Napoleon imposed a blockade on export of European goods.

Ada Lovelace: Charles Babbage called her Enchantress of Numbers, History calls her First Programmer. Daughter of Lord Byron, in 1843, her notes on the Analytical Engine are credited as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine.

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson: physician and feminist, first woman qualified to practice in England (1865), created a medical school for women, first Dean of a medical school, first woman to be elected to a school board and first woman mayor and magistrate in Britain. The day she passed the licensing exam, with highest marks, the Society of Apothecaries immediately amended their rules to prevent other women from obtaining a license.

Florence Sabin: First woman faculty at Johns Hopkins medical school (MD, 1900 from the first batch of female medical students admitted), she was also first woman to achieve Professorship there (1917), to be elected to the National Academy of Science, and head a department at Rockefeller Institute (she was passed over for Department Head at Hopkins, in favor of her own student, a male).

Valentina Tereshkova: Russian cosmonaut who was the First woman in space, in 1963, aboard Vostok 6. She completed 48 orbits in 71 hours. Her call sign was Chaika (seagull), a nickname that she carries to this day. She turned 75 two days ago.

Whom did I leave out of this very short and inadequate list?

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178 Responses to First Women in STEM: A Tribute to International Women’s Day.


  1. Only two women have a Physics Nobel Prize, Curie and Goepper Mayer (1963).


  2. Give women a chance and they will surpass your wildest dreams.

  3. Rajini Rao says:


    Emilio Lozano Aguilar , I had not realized that there were only two, wow.


  4. A chance ,,,, or ,,,,,, a Visa Platinum ,,,,,,


  5. The news articles on TV this morning were all about women having on average 27 years of bad hair in their lives or ‘suck in’ underwear, or girls having Princess Complex where they think they don’t need to know maths as their future husbands will deal with bills etc. Grrr.

  6. Rajini Rao says:


    Thanks for the link, Cheryl Ann Fillekes . I have to agree with you, there. Prabat parmal , feel free to give me names. “Changing the course of history” was a bit bombastic on my part 😉

  7. Rajini Rao says:


    Judith Polgar First woman Grandmaster in Chess: “1986, Polgar broke the gender barrier by becoming the first woman in history to qualify for the “Men’s” World Chess Championship. She was not allowed to play due to her gender. Because of Polgar, the world chess federation (FIDE) eventually had to change their policy to admit women players.”


  8. Rajini Rao Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958), a British biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer, whose work is essential to understanding of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal and graphite. Her analysis and X-ray diffraction images of DNA provided the data used to solve the DNA double helix. While denied a share of the Nobel Prize, she is widely considered a co-discoverer.


    Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was a pioneering American computer scientist and naval officer. She developed the first compiler for a computer programming language and established the concept of machine-independent programming languages Her work on the COBOL program language modernized production computing.


    Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was one of the world’s most distinguished cytogeneticists and recipient of the 1983 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine for her discovery of genetic transposition (and how genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on or off). Regarding the latter, her Nobel discovery of the telomere was an absolute game-changer.

  9. Rajini Rao says:


    Grace Murray Hopper for “the invention of the compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer. She did this, she said, because she was lazy and hoped that “the programmer may return to being a mathematician.” Her work embodied or foreshadowed enormous numbers of developments that are now the bones of digital computing: subroutines, formula translation, relative addressing, the linking loader, code optimization, and even symbolic manipulation of the kind embodied in Mathematica and Maple.” Via Cheryl Ann Fillekes , thanks!

  10. Rajini Rao says:


    Awesome, thank you Sharon Sinéad Gaughan !! Re. McClintock and telomeres, more recently, Carol Greider at my institute won the Nobel for discovery of telomerase, the enzyme that keeps the chromosomal ends intact, a key player in aging.


  11. Rajini Rao Yes, Dr. Greider has done important work (and more seems to be in the offing).


  12. It is good to see more women are participating now, I remember growing up, my sister was so good at math better than all of us, was scared to go to Engineering college.

  13. Rajini Rao says:


    Chris Veerabadran , so what path did your sister eventually take?


  14. Chris Veerabadran We all — men and women alike — owe so much to the female pioneers who led the way. Girls have life models and men have challenges to improve, to the benefit of all.


  15. Rajini Rao she became a housewife but she has two brilliant sons, both are engineers doing well.


    Sharon Sinéad Gaughan I agree, I had great women role models, I owe them.

  16. Todd Todd says:


    repeal the 19th amendment…

  17. Rajini Rao says:


    Nice try at trolling, Todd Scheving , won’t work here 😉

  18. Kapil Malik says:


    nice picture rajini…..

  19. Rajini Rao says:


    Check out Cheryl Ann Fillekes stream for more women pioneers: https://plus.google.com/u/0/117886125360290027481/posts

  20. Rajini Rao says:


    Thank you, Jochen Wiedmann . Grace Hopper has been included in the comment stream, above. Emmy Noether: Changed the face of abstract algebra: Her work on differential invariants in the calculus of variations, Noether’s theorem, has been called “one of the most important mathematical theorems ever proved in guiding the development of modern physics”. From your Wiki link, thanks!


  21. proud to be a mother.everything else comes second.

  22. Peter Guild says:


    Excellent example of great things that women do.


  23. Marie Skłodowska-Curie !


  24. This day isnt just about great women in history, but it was also about movements for women. http://www.internationalwomensday.com/about.asp


    Be proud ladies! Our ancestors did so much, all over the world, for us to be where we are today, and we can only move forward!


  25. May God bless you and your kids


  26. Delia Derbyshire was a pioneer in electronic music before most people had even heard of it at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop and she was the one who realized the Doctor Who theme song in 1962. It was one of the first television theme songs ever to be entirely electronic.


  27. Rajini Rao ADA!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Great post!

  28. Rajini Rao says:


    Thank you for the addition of another woman pioneer, Ben Jaworowski !


  29. Amelia Erhart She the first woman to receive the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross, awarded for becoming the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Earhart


  30. She the first woman to receive the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross,[3] awarded for becoming the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean ya this is wonder

  31. Rajini Rao says:


    Gnotic Pasta , what a character, Mary Edward Walker, thanks for the link and the fascinating Civil War history. I’m also tickled pink that she spoke out against the ridiculous dresses (and undergarments) women were forced to wear at the time. Great pic of her in a suit and top hat 😉

  32. Lisa Holder says:


    Daniele Steele (writer)

  33. Joe Salemka says:


    I learned about Madame Curie at an early age (my birthday fell on the same day as hers). Although her death was tragic & ironic, I imagine she would have counted it a fair trade in her pursuit of knowledge. Robert Frost said, “Strongly spent is synonymous with kept”.


  34. She took this picture herself and filled it in with Crayons

  35. Rajini Rao says:


    Suvi-Tuuli Allan , super additions and a reminder to the overwhelmingly heteronormative world to open our eyes to all definitions of persons. Thank you.


  36. hatsss offffffffff…..!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


  37. If women were really so great, they’d be holding the door open for me, nuff said.

  38. Rajini Rao says:


    Thanks, Rachel Martin , she was added in the comment list above, with a description of her work! 🙂


  39. A name all of us women should be familiar with, or be thankful for, Katharine McCormick She is remembered for funding most of the research necessary to develop the first birth control pill. http://www.amazingwomeninhistory.com/katharine-mccormick-birth-control-history/


  40. Jonathan Whitefield Sure, if you were carrying something. I mean, I don’t expect people, men or women, to open doors for me. However, it is always nice when people help, y’know.


  41. After 2 years of controversy, Marin Alsop became the first woman to conduct a major American Symphony Orchestra (Baltimore) in 2007. She is also the first woman to record all the symphonies written by Brahms.


  42. This has become an AWESOME post – and all the interaction and comments have been nothing but amazing!! Well done all! Women Rule! 🙂

  43. Rajini Rao says:


    Thanks for the adds, Kristin Bastas and Belinda Morgan . Katharine McCormick was the second woman to graduate from MIT. Among her many accomplishments, she saved MIT from becoming an all-male institution by donating money to build a women’s dormitory. Good to have a representation from the field of music. There must be many, many more!


  44. im glad im a girl! LOL! =D


  45. did u know that the first election status was given to women inthe inAZERBAIJAN


  46. i am veryyyyyyyyyy happy to be a girlll? do u?


  47. Some more women from science (specifically biology)


    Maud Menten – Of the famous Michealis-Menten equation all enzymologists know about


    Dorothy Hodgkin – X-ray structures of penicillin and Vitamin B12


    Rachel Carson – alerted us to dangers of pesticides


    Plus many more I am sure.


    Barbara McClintock and Rosanlind Franklin have already been mentioned here.

  48. Luan Lam says:


    Thanks for this great sharing Rajini Rao

  49. Rajini Rao says:


    Thanks for the adds, Prithwish Pal ! I particularly love the mention of Maud Menten. All those years of enzyme kinetics and the Michaelis Menten equation, and I only learned recently who Menten was! 🙂

  50. Hamid Raza says:


    WOman is a factORY where human BEing gets birth

  51. Rajini Rao says:


    Hamid Raza , Woman is much more than a birthing factory :). Agree, Kristin Bastas , isn’t it great that the nominations keep coming?

  52. Hamid Raza says:


    i agree it has many relation+in dimention such as daugther, sister, aunt, cousin,,,mommy and &&&&

  53. Rajini Rao says:


    I seem to have acquired a new Knight in Shining Armor 😉 Thanks, Prabat parmal !


  54. alchemists are awesome.

  55. Bharath R says:


    super………………………………


  56. lol ty Suvi you’re a dear


  57. Dorothea Bate was a pioneer palaeonologist in the 19th century, and the first woman to work at the Natural History Museum in London – at the age of 19, she marched up to the gates and presented herself for employment, an unimaginably bold gesture for the time. For more on Dorothea Bate, please check out an article I wrote about her a few years ago: http://blue-stocking.org.uk/2008/03/01/dorothea-bate/.


    More generally, Bluestocking Journal is a great place to read about the intellectual and artistic achievements of women throughout history and across disciplines. Have a look! http://blue-stocking.org.uk/


  58. Rajini Rao If we’re going further back, perhaps Hypatia? Apart from her better-known mathematical commentaries, she also wrote a treatise on astronomy.


  59. Mr. Raza, we are talking about some famous women who have contributed to the world in general. Thanks for your contribution to the list.


  60. Great links! Thank you! The sad part about M Curie was her eventual death caused from all of her exposure she had to the radiation which she at the time had no way of knowing was slowly but surely killing her! The knowledge of what she was working with simply did not exist at the time of these events! For this she deserves some recognition? Just brought it up because I noticed that a lot of the posters failed to mention the circumstances surrounding her death? Thank you.


  61. Raymond Clifford Well, she was extending work that’s went on for a long, long time. I’m reading about it in a book currently. They’re still working on it today……


    I think it has to do with creating gold? 😉


  62. You have such very classy and informative postsRajini Rao


  63. afsar afsar Well if they created gold, gold would not be worth as much. But none of that might not matter as much as you think?

  64. Anne Wagner says:


    I know this is long, but I found it so totally cool! Thanks Marie for finally rebelling!!! 😛


    The first form of ballet was a type of ballroom dancing. Modern technique was not created until the late 1600’s.


    Ballet, however, was a man’s game. Though women did dance with the men, they could not jump or beat like the men. This was because the men had tights in which they could freely move in. They women wore long, full skirts, with heavy wigs and headdresses, along with heeled shoes. Not to mention tight corsets in which women could scarcely breathe in or bend in.


    Women started to rebel against their restrictive costumes. They began wearing their hair down and no longer wore a headdress. One daring woman began to wear much shorter skirts in her performances so that the audience could see the steps more clearly. The women also stopped wearing corsets, wore shoes without heels, and wore looser clothes. Around this time, ballet dancers also stopped holding performances on a ballroom floor. Instead, they began to dance on raised platforms.


    In the midst of this dancing era, women began to rise onto pointe. Though no one is quite sure who was the first to dance on their toes, most people give credit to (and blame to) Marie Taglioni. In 1832, Marie danced the performance of La Sylphide completely on pointe.


    Though Marie might not be the first to dance on her toes, she certainly pioneered the way for generation of ballet dancers, developed pointe technique, and as a result, revolutionized ballet. Marie’s pointe shoes were much different from our shoes, today. Unlike our blocked shoes, Marie’s slippers did not support her. They had a little bit of cushioning on the sides, but not under the toes. Because of this, it was impossible to be “over her feet” as we are taught to be nowadays. So….its thanks to Marie Taglioni that we have pointe shoes, and a better form of ballet in general! 🙂

  65. rjesh biswas says:


    i know it bt, thnx 4 remember me it, again..


  66. TRUE DAT TRUE DAT ………………………..


  67. Selma Lagerloff was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

  68. Paige Bailey says:


    Don’t forget Lise Meitner (overlooked for a Nobel) and Amalie Noether (unpaid, unrecognized as well)!


  69. Lets celebrate the first woman to make a sandwich

  70. Rajini Rao says:


    Paige Bailey , thanks. Lise Meitner: “Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize. Meitner is often mentioned as one of the most glaring examples of women’s scientific achievement overlooked by the Nobel committee.Element 109, Meitnerium, is named in her honour.” Noether has been mentioned several times in the comments stream, but worth pointing out again.

  71. Bret Tobey says:


    I love the Women in STEM history, but personally I’m interested in contemporary role models. With accomplished scientists in our family and five daughters. I hope my girls just assume STEM is exciting and viable. Any suggestions for online resources that are k-8 kid friendly?


  72. Thank You for Sharing..!!!

  73. Rajini Rao says:


    Great question, Bret Tobey . Family members in the STEM field are a first source of inspiration to your daughters. 8th grade and below is a good time to embark on science projects..lots of ideas online. My son and I measured the resonance wavelengths of tuning forks using a column of water. Later, have them contact researchers at a nearby University or facility and offer to intern during their time off from school (summer break is best).

  74. Theresa Huse says:


    I love women’s history, the list could go on & on.


  75. Wishing all women well on this international day with the hope that more will find the courage to complain about the historic policies of spiritual menstruation misogyny oppression etc…


  76. thank you. I can suggest the name of our chief minister Her Highness Sri Mamata Bondopadhyay as an instance of great lady.

  77. Rajini Rao says:


    That’s your own erroneous interpretation of this post, Bonobo Fool! I’m not responsible for that.

  78. Matt Bowman says:


    Bret – you might want to check out mytechhigh.com – majority of the students are 11-14 year olds interested in STEM and nearly 40% are girls.


  79. Could I add in Daphne Oram, she was a engineer and composer who founded the BBC radiophonics workshop, and was an early pioneer of synthesizer technology. She is known for inventing the wavedraw method of synthesis, which she called “oramics”.

  80. Rajini Rao says:


    Great addition, thank you Christine Paluch .

  81. Anwar Hameed says:


    Thanks 4 sharin this post.nice this historical information

  82. Anwar Hameed says:


    Thanks 4 sharing this post.nice this historical information

  83. Billy Hung says:


    Four more famous female scientists that I did not see mentioned yet.


    Martha Chase : she was part of the duo that conducted the Hershey and Chase experiment using differential radio-isotope labeling for bacteriaphages to show that DNA, and not protein, is the material that leads to genetic changes when transferred from one organism to the next. Her work is mentioned in almost every molecular biology textbook nowadays. It often comes as a surprise, even to molecular biologists, that the Chase in Hershey and Chase was a woman.


    Kiwako Okazaki : she was part of the husband-and-wife team with Reiji Okazaki which helped elucidate the presence of short DNA fragments during lagging strand synthesis of DNA replication. The short fragments have been named after them in honor, and are now called “Okazaki fragments.” What is not as well known is that they actually worked as a team and that there are 2 Okazakis being honored in that name.


    Christianne Nüsslein-Volhard : she is a German biologist who won the Nobel’s Prize in 1995 for her work in developmental biology. She performed different mutant screens for developmental mutants in Drosophila melanogaster and pinpointed many important molecular switches important to the formation of body axes and other developmental stages.


    Françoise Barré-Sinoussi : she is a French virologist who won the Nobel’s Prize in 2008 for her work in understanding the molecular characteristics of the HIV, the causative agent for AIDS.

  84. David Martin says:


    This is all well and good but studies have shown men are, and always will be ‘top dog’ in comparison with women, the word superior springs to mind in fact…


  85. Which studies are these, David Martin ?

  86. Rajini Rao says:


    Ignore the trolls, Joy-Mari Cloete 🙂

  87. David Martin says:


    What is a troll btw? And the studies of Chief Executives at leading companies Joy-Mari Cloete

  88. Jay Mandliya says:


    Greaaattt!!


    I wanna add Indira Gandhi…


    First PM of India!!

  89. linda Wall says:


    I want to know what Charles Daily is gaging about.Because if it weren’t for women where would you men be?


  90. به افتخار تمام زنان جهان

  91. Jai Owaisi says:


    Wajud e zan(Women) se hai kainat mei rang. women,female are very beautiful thing in world a daughter give happiness. a mother give shadow mercy and a wife give love relax and enjoyment


  92. G+ at its best, here… What a comment-roll!


  93. Marie Curie – Sklodowska ,birth and upbringing in Poland. Has accomplished his discoveries in France, but do not forget about her roots ….


  94. Evan Wood thats right


    WebRep


    Overall rating


  95. Florence Nightengale, in 1860 opened the first secular school of nursing at St. Thomas’ hospital in London.


  96. 1 imp name need to added here ………….. nobel prize winner(1979)


    Mother Teresa(Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu)

  97. A CC says:


    roots don’t make difference, upbringing and education matter.


  98. I will add Rosa Parks, Maya Angelou…I am sure I can think of more+


  99. Lt, Kara Hultgreen, the US Navy’s first fleet qualified fighter pilot. She was also the first female Navy pilot to die in service in 1994, in her Tomcat.


  100. Diane Crump, first female jockey to ride in the Kentucky Derby, May 1970.


  101. At the age of 12, I told my mother, Margaret Lester, that I wanted to study Mechanical Engineering. She gave me a list of courses I must take in high school to get into an engineering school. When I struggled, she encouraged me to keep going, she shared with me some study strategies and she insisted that I continue on to a Masters degree. My mother is a retired school teacher who understood the value of an education. That was passed on to her by my grandmother who stopped going to school after the third grade.


    My grandmother encouraged my mother and aunt to pursue a good education. For that, she did the housework, so that they had the time to study.


    They shaped my history.

  102. Debbie Emory says:


    Pulitzer Prize winner, Harper Lee for “To Kill a Mockingbird.” She showed how much a story can influence society.

  103. Jason E. Lee says:


    La Vergne Lestermeringolo Thatch Wow!

  104. Jason E. Lee says:


    I have tried to be as encouraging as possible to my girls. I have faith one day they will be as inspirational to others as they already are to me.


  105. Rajini Rao I would like to mention another one Rachel Carson who was marine biologist and wrote the book Silent Spring in 1962. The book launched the modern environmental movement. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson

  106. Liz Krane says:


    Happy Women’s Day Rajini Rao! 🙂 Thank you for yet another spectacular post. I just shared a circle of women for today (https://plus.google.com/u/0/107375322906605680039/posts/E7y87mUBk6a) and you were the first to come to mind!

  107. BJ Wishinsky says:


    Fran Allen is a pioneer in the computing field of optimizing compilers. She was the first woman IBM Fellow and was the first woman to win the Turing Award (the highest honor in computing). http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances_E._Allen


  108. science with passion


  109. “she was a crystallographer” #WhatScientistsSayAboutMarieCurie

  110. BJ Wishinsky says:


    Grace Murray Hopper was a Rear Admiral in the US Navy and developed the first computer program compiler. It was her brilliant idea that we should be able to instruct computers with something like English rather than the machine language of 1s and 0s. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Hopper

  111. Sumit Kumar says:


    SHE OUR IDEAL. THANKS TO GIVE NEW ACHIEVEMENTS TO SCIENCE .


  112. Wow, Great post Rajini Rao, both for content and the level of interaction and information provided in the comments!


    I was thinking it would be great if we could have a shared circle of all the women in STEM who are on G+, kind of like a list of role models people could follow, except they would be modern-day (although it would be pretty awesome to have followed the women in your post on G+). It would have to be crowd-sourced, because I am pretty sure it would not be possible to include everyone off the top of my head. What do you guys think?


  113. Maria Sklodowski Curie, was her real name. Curie was her husband last name. Respect requires to not change it. Born and raised in Poland, she moved to France as a grown woman to fallow the search.


  114. Great women to world!


  115. How about my Indian sisters?


  116. Funny how US never even heard about International Women’s Day


  117. I was so impressed when I saw that movie when I was a young lady. She was a marvelous and dedicted person and we owe her so much.

  118. Ramon Flo says:


    congratulations to all Women’s


  119. How about Hildegard of Bingen and Julian of Norwich?


  120. as always Rajini Rao you have some of the best Google+ content around. Thanks for this lovely post.

  121. Vinod P says:


    good collection, inspiring women of the world

  122. Christy H. says:


    Outstanding post and responses! Definitely share-worthy …


  123. Lady Rajini Rao , you are What’s Hot+ Thank you+

  124. Alex Sherrod says:


    There is no Margaret Thatcher in the original list. Happy International women’s day!

  125. Rajini Rao says:


    La Vergne Lestermeringolo Thatch , Lady La Vergne, it’s the STEM women who are HOT, not I 😉

  126. Joan Hogol says:


    Marie’s ‘true’ name was Maria Skłodowska. I undesrstand but i don’t understand this ‘tradition’ to get the husband surname.


    Well… i’m a man and i dont know what women think about but for me to loss your surname i’ts like to loss a bit of your personality.

  127. Rajini Rao says:


    Alex Lee , really? How cool is that. Merkel and Thatcher were once chemists?

  128. Rajini Rao says:


    Joan Hogol , by some stroke of luck both my original last name and my husband’s is the same. So I can be a traditionalist and modern woman at the same time 😉


    Madame Curie is so well known by the Curie name. In this case, her husband and her daughter were also Nobel Laureates with the same Curie name. So it would not serve the purpose now to refer to her ‘maiden name’ only. These days, women scientists just retain their own name because of convenience in published papers, etc.

  129. Joan Hogol says:


    Rajini Rao , Lucky you to be traditionalist and modern at the same time 🙂


    Madame Rajini Rao, Nobel prize winner… yeah, sounds nice 🙂

  130. Joan Hogol says:


    Oppss… I was reading this article about Mars rovers and i found that one of that rovers is called…. Marie Curie 🙂


    http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_2154.html


  131. Joan Hogol I know a woman who had a very long and complicated last name that is difficult to pronounce. She took her husband’s last name when they married because his name has two syllables and is easy to pronounce. My friend opted for ease-of-use.

  132. Rajini Rao says:


    Smart woman, Sharon Sinéad Gaughan ! After all, what’s in a name? Of course, it makes all the difference that she had the choice 🙂

  133. Matt Kuenzel says:


    Two awesomely brilliant women who fearlessly ignored conventional wisdom and enlightened the world: Maria Montessori (“education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual, and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences upon the environment. The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of motives of cultural activity, spread over a specially prepared environment, and then refraining from obtrusive interference. “) and Jane Jacobs (author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities, critic of the “rationalist” planners (specifically Robert Moses) of the 1950s and 1960s, Jacobs argued that modernist urban planning rejects the city, because it rejects human beings living in a community characterized by layered complexity and seeming chaos.)

  134. Jason E. Lee says:


    How come Cristina Rodriguez was not recognized?

  135. Rajini Rao says:


    Jason E. Lee , a quick google on Cristina Rodriguez came up with several options, with the most likely being NYU Law (I’m guessing not the hot female?). I know nothing about law, so please let me know if I’m on the right track!

  136. Rajini Rao says:


    Matt Kuenzel , of course Maria Montessori! But I did not know the work of Jane Jacobs, thanks! Good to have a representation from the civil side of engineering/urban planning. American cities need better integration of work and home spaces, better public transportation and schools if they are to survive.

  137. Jason E. Lee says:


    Cristina Rodriguez is one of the more well known designers at Ford. She has been in the news repetitively over the past few years. I read an article once that her input had made some major improvements into the recent ford revamping. I am a car nut and was just fooling around with inspiring women in a field that I am passionate about. 🙂

  138. Rajini Rao says:


    Got it, thank you Jason E. Lee ! Cristina Rodriguez: “This thirty-something Puerto Rican is the only woman at Ford Motor Company to have achieved her status as a Vehicle Dynamics Development Engineer. The job is equal parts engineer, race driver and vehicle psychologist.”

  139. linda colman says:


    Mother and daughter greats: Writers Anita and Kiran Desai.

  140. linda colman says:


    Sister greats; Writers A.S. Byatt and Margaret Drabble.

  141. linda colman says:


    More famous sisters: Emily and Charlotte Bronte.

  142. Rajini Rao says:


    Wonderful additions, thanks linda colman !

  143. linda colman says:


    More accomplished sisters: Jessica and Nancy Mitford.

  144. Matt Kuenzel says:


    Rajini Rao If you have a chance, read The Death and Life of Great American Cities and I’m sure you will be thrilled: she was a very careful observer who perceived and articulated principles to encourage rich human interaction.

  145. peter k says:


    margaret mead cultural anthropologist


    jane goodall primatologist, ethologist, anthropologist


    eleanor rosch cognitive scientist, psychologist, one of the founders of the cognitive revolution

  146. vignesh raj says:


    i like their invention

  147. Gail Barnes says:


    Great list Rajini Rao

  148. Gail Barnes says:


    Marie Curie would have been top of my list as well!

  149. Rajini Rao says:


    I’m a fan of Beatrix Potter, M Sinclair Stevens . I love her work and life story!

  150. PAVAN KUMAR says:


    HI…. WONDERFUL PICS ….KEEP POSTING THE SAME…..

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